SECTION III. MARCHES
Spitze - Point
Spitzenkompanie - Advance Party
Vortrupp - Support
Haupttrupp - Reserve
Nachspitze - Rear Point
Nachspitzenkompanie - Rear Party
Nachtrupp - Support
Haupttrupp - Reserve
The issue of orders for march and traffic control is the responsibility of the higher command. Movement by road of formations from battalion strength upward is carried out in the Zone of the Interior at the orders of the Army High Command (OKH) or a headquarters acting on the orders of the Army High Command. In the Theater of War such movements are controlled by Army Headquarters, which issues orders in accordance with instructions from Army High Command or the Army Group. Movements in the areas of military commanders of line-of-communication areas are controlled by orders of the commanders of such areas.
Orders for movement are issued to the formations of fighting troops by the operations group of headquarters; those to supply services and units in the line-of-communication area emanate from the supply and administrative group.
The Germans set up a well organized traffic control service which is under the orders of the operations group. All traffic control services usually wear orange-red brassards, while the members of the military police are distinguished by metal gorgets.
The Germans allot to each front-line division its own road or sector of advance, usually marked by advance parties. General Headquarters or any other troops directed simultaneously on the same roads, are subordinated to the division for the duration of the move. All-weather roads usually are allotted to motorized or armored divisions, while subsidiary roads are assigned to infantry divisions.
The Germans are very much concerned about antiaircraft protective measures and often march in open columns (Fliegermarschtiefe); an advance in deployed formation (Fliegermarschbreite) is seldom practical. Antiaircraft defense is concentrated at important terrain features, such as bridges, crossroads, and defiles. Because of Allied air supremacy the Germans now instruct their troops to conduct movements and the transport of supplies only at night, and without lights. They also order their troops to leave burned out vehicles standing on the road to attract fresh attacks by enemy aircraft.
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